The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the population became the current issue due to a significant increase in the number of sources of electromagnetic radiation, especially the rapid development of telecommunication technologies. Despite the support the research on the impact of electromagnetic fields on human health is receiving by the World Health Organization or the European Union it is currently not possible to clearly confirm or deny a long-term detrimental effects of EMF exposure on humans. Some studies shows a correlation between electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of diseases such as leukemia and cancer. Other studies have not demonstrated the negative impact of electromagnetic fields on human health if the currently applicable limits are not exceeded. Considering the current state, the research of the impact of electromagnetic fields on the human body must continue to pay adequate and systematic attention and support research activities regarding the electromagnetic fields effects.
The issue of electromagnetic fields is the focus of many important organizations, for example The International Commission for the Protection of Non-Ionizing Radiation (ICNIRP), the World Health Organization (WHO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), as well as many others. The question of protection against the effects of electromagnetic fields is currently dealt with also in the European Union (EU). The European Council and the European Parliament issued a draft of the measures concerning electromagnetic fields. It is a Council Recommendation (1999/519/EC) from 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz), based on the recommendations of the International Commission for Protection Against Non-Ionizing Radiation (ICNIRP). The second document is a directive of the European Parliament and Council 2013/35/EU from 26 June 2013 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields) The topicality of the issue of electromagnetic fields is confirmed by the results of Eurobarometer No. 272a from June 2007. The results showed that the majority of EU citizens feel that public authorities don´t inform them adequately on measures to protect them from electromagnetic radiation.
In the framework of Slovak legislation the issue of protection of the individuals from the effects of electromagnetic fields is dealt with by the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic 534/2007 Col. (Requirements regarding the sources of electromagnetic radiation and population exposure limits to electromagnetic radiation in the environment) and Government Decree 329/2006 Col. (on the minimum health and safety requirements to protect workers from the risks related to exposure to electromagnetic fields) Subjected legislative regulations establish minimum requirements for sources of electromagnetic radiation in order to ensure the protection of public health in the environment and to ensure the safety and health of workers in relation to exposure to electromagnetic fields with a frequency from 0 Hz to 300 GHz The current action values for the population of the Slovak Republic are shown on Fig. no. 1.
For reasons to ensure a sufficient protection of the population against the adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) in some developed countries the concept of "reasonable minimizing exposure" is promoted. In practice this concept means taking simple, easy to perform, inexpensive measures to minimize exposure to population, even when the risk arising from personal exposure to electromagnetic fields is not significant (exposure levels are below the limits set by legislation) An example of compliance with the concept of "reasonable minimizing exposure" may be planning the construction of health facilities, playgrounds, schools and pre-school facilities in locations with the lowest levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields This approach, however, without relevant information on the achieved levels of electromagnetic fields cannot be applied in practice.